Roger Ver VS Craig Wright: As an ordinary Bitcoin Cash hard fork, it turned into a Bitmain and Coingeek struggle

Роджер ВЕР vs Крейг РАЙТ: как обычный хардфорк Bitcoin Cash превратился в борьбу Bitmain и CoinGeek

15 ноября состоялся хардфорк Bitcoin Cash, который разделился на две валюты: Bitcoin ABC (BCHABC), за которым стоят оригинальные разработчики BCH во главе с Амори СЕЧЕТОМ, соучредителем Bitmain Джиханом ВУ и генеральным директором Bitcoin.com Роджером ВЕРОМ, и Bitcoin http://btcnews.fun/2023/01/04/how-to-send-crypto-from-uphold/ SV (BCHSV) от компании nChain Крейга РАЙТА и майнинг-пула Coingeek миллиардера Кельвина ЭЙРА. Что привело к расколу и появлению двух противоборствующих лагерей?

Сам по себе хардфорк не является чем-то из ряда вон выходящим. В основном, это просто технологическое обновление. С целью увеличения масштабируемости и, следовательно, ускорения обработки транзакций чуть больше года назад состоялся хардфорк биткоина, результатом которого стала самостоятельно функционирующая валюта Bitcoin Cash, которая, к слову сказать, не смогла обойти своего прародителя, обосновавшись на почетном, но все же четвертом месте с рыночной капитализацией в $9 млрд (на 14 ноября до хардфорка). Процедура хардфорка производится майнерами. В отсутствие конфликта интересов все переходят на усовершенствованную модель, и валюта продолжает свое существование в новом виде. Однако в этот раз консенсуса достигнуть не удалось, что привело к созданию двух новых монет.

Bitcoin ABC обновляет протокол Bitcoin Сash каноническим упорядочиванием транзакций (CTOR), которое, по мнению разработчиков, может дать ряд преимуществ над топологическим упорядочиванием (TTOR), которое предполагает возможность проведения дочерних транзакций только после обработки родительских операций:

– CTOR проще реализовать, чем TTOR, сложность которого заключается в требовании заказа родительских транзакций перед дочерними.

– Майнерам больше не придется выстраивать порядок платежей, на что уходит около 70% времени создания шаблона блока. Механизм «ребенок платит за родителя» предполагает, что майнер может рассматривать зависимые транзакции как группу за совокупный объем комиссии и подтвердить дочернюю транзакцию, за которую предлагается более высокая плата, до родительской, что приведет к повышению производительности сети.

– Становится возможной параллельная верификация блоков. Исключаются промежуточные состояния во время проверки блока, от чего страдает, например, масштабируемость Ethereum.

– Процесс кодирования блоков упрощается за счет того, что ноды берут в работу транзакции только тогда, когда в их мемпулах находятся отличия от недавно сформированных блоков.

– CTOR уменьшает сложность системы, устраняя весь класс векторов атак, где вредоносный майнер может опубликовать большой блок с транзакционным заказом.

По сути, СTOR делает прибыльную транзакцию более доступной для майнеров, но структура этой транзакции также подразумевает, что операторы вместе с ней будут забирать менее прибыльные транзакции, которые до этого застревали в ожидании очереди. Такая измененная структура сборов позволяет уменьшить размер комиссий за типичные транзакции.

Второй лагерь, лагерь Bitcoin SV, настаивает на том, что новая технология еще не протестирована, вследствие чего ее имплементация может носить высокорискованный характер. Более того, они считают, что на данный момент нет необходимости изменять порядок обработки транзакций, а масштабируемость и, следовательно, производительность сети может быть достигнута за счет увеличения максимального размера блока до 128 МБ с нынешних 32 МБ. Видимо, оппоненты Bitcoin ABC хотят оставить всю власть майнерам в процессе выбора, приема и обработки платежей. И вот почему.

Допустим, клиент решил перевести виртуальную монету, предлагая плату в $1. В этот же момент другие пользователи делают заказы на обработку их транзакций за $10. В итоге первый платеж застревает и часами ждет своего подтверждения. При этом первый клиент уже хочет провести вторую транзакцию, дочернюю, за $15, но она может быть добавлена в блок только после одобрения первого родительского платежа за $1. Если майнеры BCHABC обработают сначала дочернюю транзакцию, то затем они будут вынуждены взять в работу и родительский платеж, а майнеры BCHSV могут не принимать родительскую операцию вплоть до момента спада загруженности, когда средний размер комиссии приблизится к $1. Получается, что у майнеров BCHSV сохраняется больше прав выбора, а значит, данная сеть находится в большей от них зависимости. Именно поэтому контроль хешрейта BCH в 75% до хардфорка находился на стороне майнеров, поддерживающих Satoshi Vision. Но почему майнинговый гигант Bitmain встал на другую сторону баррикады?

Во-первых, BCHABC продолжает работать на протоколе BCH, в то время как BCHSV восстанавливает несколько старых OP-кодов биткоин-протокола и в будущем планирует приблизиться к версии протокола 0.1.0 от 2009 года, что полностью рушит ассоциацию новой валюты с BCH, а у Bitmain имеются серьезные накопления именно в данном цифровом активе, которые даже при большом желании компания не успела бы вывести к этому моменту.

Во-вторых, добыча и обработка транзакций с BCHSV не требует наличия наиболее технологически усовершенствованного оборудования, полагает генеральный директор сингапурской блокчейн-компании Сет ЛИМ. Поддержка такого проекта априори не может быть экономически выгодна крупнейшему производителю майнинговых аппаратов, который недавно анонсировал выпуск новых АСИКов на 7-нанометровом чипе.

В-третьих, складывается впечатление, что данное противостояние — это борьба за власть между бывшими партнерами, каждый из которых хочет подчинить себе новую сеть. «Если SV выиграет, он заменит динамичную экосистему полного узла на ПО, которое находится под контролем одного человека», — рассуждает наш эксперт Сет ЛИМ о возможной монополизации протокола Крейгом РАЙТОМ. Самопровозглашенный Сатоши, на кошельках которого, предположительно, хранятся миллионы биткоинов, и так является влиятельной фигурой в криптосообществе, но в случае успеха Satoshi Vision он получит еще больше власти.

Более того, большую часть операций с новой монетой BCHSV обрабатывает CoinGeek Кельвина ЭЙРА, который ранее вынужден был конкурировать с майнинговыми пулами Bitmain и Bitcoin.com. В своем официальном заявлении миллиардер отмечал: «Поскольку майнеры должны определять дальнейшее развитие биткоин-пространства, CoinGeek и другие майнеры попросили nChain создать профессиональную реализацию полной ноды биткоина для BCH на базе оригинального протокола биткоина. CoinGeek спонсирует проект и намерен майнить Bitcoin SV».

майнинг блоков.PNG

На диаграмме выше можно видеть, что подконтрольные Bitmain майнинговые пулы BTC.com, AntPool, ViaBTC создают 33% новых блоков, Bitcoin.com Роджера ВЕРА — 27.3%, а CoinGeek — только 18.2% новых блоков. При этом, если Bitmain и Bitcoin.com майнят BCHABC, то пул ЭЙРА является майнинг-монополистом в операциях с BCHSV.

Ко всему прочему, CoinGeek выбрал наиболее подходящий момент для давления на авторитет Bitmain. Китайская компания явно испытывает финансовые трудности, проводя раунды финансирования один за одним в июне и августе, собрав $263 млн и $442 млн соответственно. Более того, майнинговый гигант жаждет провести IPO, для чего ему приходится раскрывать свои не самые впечатляющие показатели и даже делать структурные перестановки. Так, китайские источники сообщали о возможном уходе Джихана ВУ с поста председателя совета директоров и его переходе на позицию супервайзера. Впоследствии компания опровергла эти слухи, однако такой новостной фон может иметь негативное влияние на желание инвесторов финансировать Bitmain, а в случае провала BCHABC успешное размещение акций может стоять под большим вопросом, что не может не радовать его майнинговых конкурентов, в том числе и CoinGeek.

Получается, что каждый из участников конфликта преследует свои собственные интересы, что весьма негативно отражается на всем крипторынке. К каким именно последствиям привела борьба четырех влиятельных участником криптосообщества, мы расскажем в следующем материале.

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Electronic Data Area Vendors Comparison

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Deciding on Document Circulation Software

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Auto-Equipped 2023 Nissan Z Sales On Hold for Potential Rollaway Risk

if folks aren’t already in the habit of engaging the parking brake every time. which have already been issued a sale hold and voluntary recall this year. Nissan also confirmed in an email that the transmission issue is related to a similar problem reportedly found on the same nine-speed auto transmission equipped on the Nissan Frontier and Titan pickup trucks, where the vehicle could be in shifted into "Park" "Nissan initiated a quality hold on [model year] 2023 Nissan Z [nine-speed] automatic transmission equipped vehicles on August 29,

Auto-Equipped 2023 Nissan Z Sales On Hold for Potential Rollaway Risk

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p>2023 Nissan Z 10 a Nissan spokesperson informed MotorTrend. offering enthusiasts a choice of either a six-speed manual or nine-speed automatic transmission mated to a 400-hp twin-turbo V-6, until they are notified and receive a fix. which already implicates up to 200,000 of its newer pickups. Nissan has previously directed them to always engage the parking brake when the vehicle is parked or sitting idle https://hata.co.tz/ in "Park" Since it’s only an issue with the auto 'box, Those Nissan Frontier and Titan owners whose vehicles are subject to that recall will be notified by November 1 later this year, the existing issue with the nine-speed automatic transmission found on the 2020-2023 model-year Frontier and Titan pickup trucks has to do with non-engagement of the parking pawl, It’s unclear when impacted Nissan Z owners may be notified by the automaker for its similar issue for now. 2022 while it investigates this issue. but it’s already hitting turbulence. and still potentially roll away if the parking brake isn’t also engaged, as detailed in documents filed with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) earlier this year.

It’s also unclear when Nissan will manage to arrange a fix for the issue, dealers therefore can’t sell their inventory, the six-speed manual-equipped cars are still good to go. The launch of the 2023 Nissan Z sports car was just getting off the ground, and all orders are now on hold. It would make sense that similar advice could and should be offered to nine-speed Z owners, the automaker has previously announced. While not specifically detailed or confirmed by Nissan as carrying over to the Z, For affected Frontier and Titan owners, The investigation is on-going at this time," The automaker has voluntarily issued a stop sale order on all new 2023 Nissan Z coupes equipped with the nine-speed automatic transmission;